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When it comes to Reading, There's a Story Behind Every Student...
…and Each Student’s Story is Different.

 

Life in the classroom would be a lot easier if every student learned at the same pace. But that’s rarely the case, especially when it comes to reading. Educators have come to rely on the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests (GMRT) and its research-based tests to get the real story behind every student.

GMRT allows teachers and schools to know the general level of reading achievement of individual students throughout their entire school careers. The objective information obtained from GMRT, complemented by teachers' evaluations and other sources of information, can provide a basis for the following:

  • Organizing students into appropriate instructional groups​​​

  • Selecting students for individual diagnosis and special instruction

  • Identifying students who are ready for more advanced instruction

  • Placing new students into proper instructional programs

  • Evaluating the effectiveness of instructional programs

  • Reporting student progress to parents, teachers, and the community

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GMRT Now Offers A Choice of 2017 Norms, Providing You With Up-to-Date Comparisons of Student Performance!

Testing Ages

K - Adult Reader

Purpose

To provide 2017
normative data from
administrations of GMRT,
which assesses student
achievement in reading.

Authors

Walter H. MacGinitie 

Ruth K. MacGinitie 

Katherine Maria 

Lois G. Dreyer
Kay E. Hughes

Scores

National Percentile
Rank (NPR), Extended
Scale Score (ESS), National
Stanine (NS), Grade
Equivalent (GE), Normal
Curve Equivalent (NCE),
Raw Score, Lexile®

 

Scoring Services

GMRT can be centrally scored to provide professional reports and ensure accurate scoring.

 

DataPlus GMRT web reporting is now available in DataManager—the same online reporting tool used for managing other assessment programs such as the Iowa Assessments™, Logramos®, and CogAT®. DataManager offers powerful and flexible online reporting allowing you to view, disaggregate, and analyze your assessment data.​

The GMRT

Scoring Process

For detailed scoring information and ordering instructions, click here.

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Levels PR Through 3

 

Machine-scorable and hand-scorable booklets are available.

 

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  • Students mark their answer choices directly in a test booklet.

  • Machine-scorable booklets are sent to Riverside Scoring Service for scanning and scoring.

  • Hand-scored booklets are scored locally using a Booklet Scoring Key.

 

Levels 4 Through AR

 

Machine-scored and self-scored answer sheets are available. Reusable test booklets also can be hand-scored.

 

  • Machine-scorable answer sheets are sent to Riverside Scoring Service for scanning and scoring. They can also be hand-scored with an acetate scoring template.

  • Self-scorable answer sheets are available for fast and accurate local hand scoring.

  • Reusable test booklets may be hand-scored in situations where students are best accommodated being allowed to mark answers directly in the test booklet.

 

This format can also be useful for diagnosing students' comprehension problems.

​​When booklets or answer sheets are scored by hand, a full range of hand-scoring aids are available:

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  • Class Summary Record forms for recording individual scores and for calculating and recording group averages.

  • Booklet Scoring Keys provide reduced-size booklet pages for fast and accurate scoring.

  • Acetate Scoring Templates that overlay the Machine-Scorable Answer Sheets.

  • Decoding Skills Analysis forms for Levels 1 and 2 Word Decoding only.

 

When booklets or answer sheets are scored by Riverside Scoring Service, a variety of score reports may be ordered.

 

Reporting

Teachers who score through the Riverside Scoring Service will have access to DataManager. This dynamic, online tool makes it easy to analyze test results. With a few clicks of a mouse, teachers can view individual student and class summary data to analyze performance and create effective instructional plans.

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DataManager Reports

• Users can quickly create ranked class,
building, and system lists of student scores.

 

• Users can save reports as PDF files or
export data to Microsoft® Excel® to create
customized reports for their school or
district.

 

• Data is accessed through a secure Internet
connection.

 

• Teachers can access data for their class,
building administrators can access data for
their building, and system administrators
can explore system-wide data.

 

• Teachers and administrators can readily
disaggregate test data from specific
populations.

Decoding Skills Analysis

For Levels 1 and 2, DataManager also provides a Decoding Skills Analysis— the most diagnostic report offered by GMRT. Teachers can focus on the skills in this report when planning their lessons and placing their students in instructional groups. The skills include:
 

• Initial Consonants/Consonant Combinations
 

• Final Consonants/ Consonant Combinations
 

• Single Vowels
 

• Letters Overlooked
 

• Letters Reversed
 

• Vowel Combinations
 

• Vowel/Consonant Combinations
 

• Vowel-r Combinations
 

• Multisyllable Words

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Sample Test Items

Items in GMRT undergo a rigorous development process to ensure a quality test that is free of bias and evidence-based. The items are also presented in a format that is simple, clear, and familiar. This allows students to follow their natural reading behavior during the test.

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Phonological Awareness

In this Pre-Reading example, the teacher points to the picture of the mountain and reads the possible answers: curtain, fountain, button, mouth. Students demonstrate their phonological awareness by identifying the word that rhymes with mountain.

Decoding

Levels 1 and 2 include questions that focus on word decoding skills. This example features the word weaver. The wrong choices are designed to represent common decoding errors.

Vocabulary

Vocabulary is tested in Levels 3–10/12 and AR (Adult Reading).

Selected words are suited to each grade level.

Comprehension

Mature Reading comprehension passages are taken from previously published books and periodicals in a variety of writing styles.

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Levels to Support Lifelong Learning

Each struggling reader may have a different area of difficulty.

GMRT measures essential reading skills that can help teachers identify students’ specific areas of weakness.

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Linking Testing to Teaching

GMRT offers an optional manual, Linking Testing to Teaching: A Classroom Resource for Reading Assessment and Instruction, which provides help for teachers:​

  • Author guidance for interpreting student test results

  • Straightforward techniques to help pinpoint students’ reading difficulties

  • Proven instructional strategies for developing reading skills

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Pre-Reading: Level PR

Designed to help teachers discover what students at the end of Kindergarten and students at the beginning Grade 1 know about important background concepts that are important for learning to read.

  • Subtest 1, Literacy Concepts, evaluates students' understanding of the nature and uses of written English and their understanding of words and phrases commonly used in beginning reading instruction.

  • Subtest 2, Oral Language Concepts (Phonological Awareness), evaluates students' abilities to attend to the basic structure of spoken English words, especially to phonemic units (speech sounds), which are the basis of the alphabetic principle and much beginning reading instruction.

  • Subtest 3, Letters and Letter/Sound Correspondences, evaluates students' knowledge of letters and their abilities to relate them to sounds.

  • Subtest 4, Listening (Story) Comprehension, evaluates students' abilities to understand important elements of connected text. Designed for nonreaders, answer choices for Level PR predominantly consist of pictures.

Beginning Reading: Level BR

Designed as a first test of students' decoding skills. Level BR is particularly appropriate for situations in which growth is measured by giving the same test at the beginning and end of Grade 1. An age-appropriate comprehension test measures students’ ability to read words commonly used in stories. Answer choices for Level BR consist of both pictures and words.

  • Subtest 1, Initial Consonants and Consonant Clusters

  • Subtest 2, Final Consonants and Consonant Clusters

  • Subtest 3, Vowels

  • Subtest 4, Basic Story Words

The first three subtests - Initial Consonants and Consonant Clusters, Final Consonants and Consonant Clusters, and Vowels - evaluate students' abilities to decode combinations of consonants and vowels that make up real English words.

The last subtest, Subtest 4, Basic Story Words, evaluates students' abilities to identify words most commonly used in written text that typically are learned without decoding. Answer choices for Level BR consist of both pictures and words.

Beginning Reading: Level BR

Designed as a first test of students' decoding skills. Level BR is particularly appropriate for situations in which growth is measured by giving the same test at the beginning and end of Grade 1. An age-appropriate comprehension test measures students’ ability to read words commonly used in stories. Answer choices for Level BR consist of both pictures and words.

  • Subtest 1, Initial Consonants and Consonant Clusters

  • Subtest 2, Final Consonants and Consonant Clusters

  • Subtest 3, Vowels

  • Subtest 4, Basic Story Words

The first three subtests - Initial Consonants and Consonant Clusters, Final Consonants and Consonant Clusters, and Vowels - evaluate students' abilities to decode combinations of consonants and vowels that make up real English words.

The last subtest, Subtest 4, Basic Story Words, evaluates students' abilities to identify words most commonly used in written text that typically are learned without decoding. Answer choices for Level BR consist of both pictures and words.

Early Independent Reading: Levels 1 and 2

Designed to provide a general assessment of early independent reading achievement. Because Levels 1 and 2 contain the same sample questions and use the same general administration procedures, they can be administered together in the same testing room. Students who take Level 2 need an additional testing session for the Word Knowledge test.

Both Level 1 and Level 2 contain a Word Decoding test and a Comprehension test. The Word Decoding test evaluates students' abilities to decode or recognize words. Incorrect answer choices are based on common decoding errors. The Comprehension test evaluates students' abilities to understand extended written text.

 

The passages in the Comprehension test represent various kinds of extended text found in written English, including fiction and nonfiction, narrative and expository modes, and a variety of writing styles. All but the last passages consist of four text segments; each segment is accompanied by a panel of three picture answer choices. The students' task is to choose the picture in each panel that illustrates the text segment or answers a question about the segment. Level 2 contains a Word Knowledge test, which evaluates beginning reading vocabulary. Incorrect answer choices are based on errors of meaning.

Mature Reading: Levels 3–10/12 and AR

Designed to provide a general assessment of reading achievement in grades 3 through 10/12. Each level consists of a Vocabulary test and Comprehension test. Levels 4 through 10/12 can be administered together in the same testing room at the same time.

 

The Vocabulary tests for Levels 3 through 10/12 measure reading vocabulary. Each test word is presented in a brief context intended to suggest part of speech but not to provide clues to meaning. Students are expected to select the word or phrase that means most nearly the same as the test word.

The Comprehension tests measure students' abilities to read and understand different types of prose. All of the passages are taken from published books and periodicals. The content is selected to reflect the type of materials that students are required to read for their schoolwork and choose to read for recreation.

 

Some questions require students to construct an understanding based on a literal understanding of the passage; others require students to make inferences or draw conclusions. The Comprehension tests also measure the ability to determine the meaning of words in an authentic text context.

 

Adult Reading: Level AR

Designed for use by colleges, community colleges, adult education programs, GED programs, vocational and training schools, and other post-high school educational programs that need to assess the general reading achievement of their students. Level AR can also be used by businesses and other organizations that need to know how well individuals read. The format matches Levels 3 through 10/12 and includes a Vocabulary test and a Comprehension test. However, the content of both the Vocabulary test and the Comprehension test was selected with the interests and needs of adults in mind.

 

Links to Instruction

The ultimate goal of GMRT is to help teachers get results in the classroom.

With that in mind, there are several excellent resources available for GMRT.

The GMRT 2017 Normative Update provides the most up-to-date comparisons for reading achievement. The Normative Update reflects changes in student performance, providing educators with the comparisons of reading performance that more accurately reflect reading achievement today.

 

Having up-to-date normative information is critical in times of change and education reform, as normative comparisons inform many education-related decisions. Using GMRT with its updated 2017 norms allows you to assess student reading performance, make comparisons, and create effective instructional plans with greater confidence and accuracy.

A classroom resource for reading assessment and instruction, developed and written by the GMRT authors, Linking Testing to Teaching is designed to provide guidance in planning instruction, intervention, and enrichment based on students' test results. The linking manual guides teachers through a series of thought-provoking questions to identify which reading skills need attention and suggests proven instructional techniques for developing these skills. The studies and tips for integrating instruction into the classroom are helpful for both beginning and experienced teachers.

 

Help students improve in reading. Detailed easy-to-follow examples of teacher-student interactions and instructional techniques provide insight into the following:

 

  • Instructing students in word identification

  • Understanding how students learn word meanings

  • Teaching word meanings

  • Teaching comprehension strategies

  • Developing students’ metacognition, or awareness of their thinking

  • Creating instructional programs for teaching comprehension strategies

  • Working with students whose language or culture differs from that assumed by classroom materials

Lexile Measures

Students’ scores can be linked to the Lexile Framework® for Reading. Lexile measures are available for Levels 1 through 10/12, and can be used to link students with reading materials of appropriate difficulties though the Lexile website.

 

A special research study was conducted to statistically link GMRT Comprehension test scores to the Lexile Framework’. Scores on the GMRT comprehension test can be linked to Lexile measures because of the research described in the Lexile Conversions Manual. This manual also provides tables for converting GMRT comprehension raw scores (total number correct) to Lexile measures. There is a separate table for each level and form of the comprehension test.

 

Lexile measures are also available through DataManager.

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